Anticholinergic Drugs Indications & Contraindications
Anticholinergic drugs are drugs that improve the function of innervation. Inside the human body consists of thousands of nerve cells. Nerve cells communicate with one another through substances called neurotransmitters.
There are various types of neurotransmitters depending on the type of nerve cell. One of the main neurotransmitters in our body is acetylcholine.
Acetylcholine works on the parasympathetic nerves, the nerves that have a relaxing effect on the body and muscles. Parasympathetic nerves are found in the muscles of the digestive tract, urinary tract, and lungs. The sympathetic nerves communicate with each other through acetylcholine.
Anticholinergic drugs work to inhibit acetylcholine so that it will reduce the function of the parasympathetic nerves.
- Abnormalities in the digestive tract, such as gastric pain, diarrhea, intestinal injuries, nausea, vomiting;
- Urinary tract disorders, such as bladder inflammation, urinary tract inflammation;
- Abnormalities in the respiratory tract, such as asthma, lower respiratory tract infections (bronchitis);
- Abnormalities in the heart, such as low heart rate;
- Others, such as insomnia, spinning dizziness.
Anticholinergic Drugs Side Effects
Side effects of anticholinergic drugs include:
- Unbalanced sensation;
- Dry mouth, dry eyes, sore throat;
- Dry skin;
- Redness of the skin;
- Increased body temperature;
- Feel glare;
- Blurred vision;
- Heart rate increases, palpitations;
- Difficulty urinating;
- Difficulty defecating;
- Disorders of the brain nerves (rare), such as seizures, coma, hallucinations.
If these side effects occur, patients can be given antidotes, phisotigmin.
Anticholinergic Drugs Dosages
Anticholinergic drug dosages vary depending on the type of drug used and the type of disease treated. For example, the dose of atropine to treat gastrointestinal disorders is 3 times 0.4 mg. Ipratropium is available as a liquid for steam therapy in people with asthma.
The dose of ipratropium is 500 micrograms repeated every 20 minutes for three times. Diphenhidramin for insomnia, the dose is 50 mg taken 30 minutes before bedtime.
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