Kawasaki Disease: Symptoms, Treatments and Prevention

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What is Kawasaki Disease?

Kawasaki disease is a disease that most often affects children. This disease is an inflammation of the arteries throughout the body. This inflammation tends to occur in the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscles. In addition to its effects on the arteries, Kawasaki disease also affects the lymph nodes, skin, and mucous membranes in the mouth, nose and throat.

Risk Factors of Kawasaki Disease

The following factors can make a person prone to Kawasaki disease, including:

  • Boys are more susceptible to this disease than girls.
  • Ages six months to five years are more vulnerable than children in other age groups.
  • Ethnic Asian.

Kawasaki Disease Causes

Until now, the cause of Kawasaki disease is still unclear. However, some theories state that this Kawasaki disease occurs due to a bacterial or viral infection that precedes two weeks to one month before it occurs.

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Kawasaki Disease Symptoms

Kawasaki disease usually appears in three phases, namely:

First phase

  • Fever reaches 39 degrees Celsius or more and lasts more than three days.
  • Red eye (conjunctivitis) without secretions.
  • Red rashes especially on the body and genital area. Redness will look shiny (very typical in this disease).
  • Red lips, dry, cracked, and accompanied by a swollen and red tongue (strawberry tongue).
  • Swelling and redness on the palms and soles of the feet
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the neck and other areas.
  • Restless.

Second phase

  • Skin peeling off the hands and feet, especially on the tips of the nails.
  • Joint pain.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Stomach ache.

Third Phase
In the third phase symptoms usually begin to disappear, unless complications occur.

Kawasaki Disease Diagnosis

Diagnosis is based on history taking and physical examination. Generally, before the doctor makes the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease, the doctor will eliminate the possibility of other diseases before making the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease, such as:

  • Scarlet fever.
  • Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis.
  • Steven-Johnson syndrome.
  • Toxic Shock Syndrome.
  • Measles.
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There is no laboratory blood test that can be definitely used to diagnose Kawasaki disease. Most other investigations will be used to eliminate possible diagnoses from other disease conditions.

Kawasaki Disease Treatments

Although it is believed that Kawasaki disease is a disease that can heal by itself, treatment needs to be done to prevent the occurrence of unwanted complications. This aims to prevent an impact / damage to the heart. Patients will be advised to be admitted and treated. Among these are by:

  • The use of drugs to reduce inflammation symptoms, reduce joints, and reduce fever temperatures.
  • Gamma globulin injection to reduce the risk of damage to the coronary arteries.
  • High doses of anti-inflammatory can also be used to reduce inflammation that occurs in the body of the sufferer.

Kawasaki Disease Prevention

Until now, there is no certain theory about the causes of Kawasaki disease, so prevention is still difficult to do. However, children must be kept in good condition, especially with a healthy diet accompanied by vaccination.

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